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The 2023 Ultimate Guide to Fibromyalgia



Fibromyalgia is one of the most common chronic pain conditions. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the condition affects about 4 million U.S. adults. The majority of that number is made up of women. The American Chronic Pain Association (ACPA) estimates that nearly as many women live with fibromyalgia as there are living with diabetes.

Despite its prevalence, there are a lot of misconceptions about fibromyalgia. Because much of the condition is medically unexplained, some people don’t even believe the condition is real. Even those who think it exists, even those living with it and healthcare professionals, may still find it hard to understand. This guide will help clear up those misunderstandings by walking you through the basics, like what fibromyalgia is, how it is diagnosed, and ways to ease fibromyalgia pain.

Fibromyalgia facts , further details are provided below.

What is Fibromyalgia?

Fibromyalgia is a chronic condition characterized by widespread pain in the muscles and bones. This is typically a consistent dull ache or tenderness in multiple “regions of pain” throughout the body. Fibromyalgia can also cause a range of other symptoms that often mimic those of other conditions. It is not yet completely understood. Unfortunately, because of this, many people with fibromyalgia are misdiagnosed at first. 

Common Fibromyalgia Symptoms , further detail next to image

Fibromyalgia Symptoms

Those with fibromyalgia typically experience many different symptoms at once. Some common symptoms include:

  • Widespread pain
  • Fatigue
  • Trouble sleeping or not feeling rested after sleeping
  • Anxiety
  • Depression

Fibromyalgia also commonly causes what is known as “fibro fog” or a “brain fog.” Fibro fog can make it difficult to concentrate and stay alert and may cause memory lapses

Some less common symptoms may include:

  • Headaches
  • Digestive issues
  • Belly pain, nausea, or bloating
  • Dizziness
  • Muscle spasms
  • Chills
  • Low-grade fever
  • Dry eyes, nose, or mouth
  • Sensory sensitivity (such as to sound or light)
  • Ringing in the ears
  • Widespread itching

All symptoms of fibromyalgia may fluctuate between flare-ups and periods of symptom relief. Often, a particularly bad period of pain and other symptoms is followed by a period of relief.  

A woman with a hot/cold wrap on her back

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What Causes Fibromyalgia?

It has been found that fibromyalgia develops due to a malfunction of the body’s neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that help the nerve cells communicate with each other and with other cells in the body. When they work correctly, the body can function properly.

In the case of fibromyalgia, neurotransmitter production is altered, and the body perceives stimuli more strongly than usual. This results in the widespread pain experienced with the condition.

The altered production of neurotransmitters impacts more than just the body’s perception of pain, too. Malfunctioning neurotransmitters can also disturb the body’s other functions. This is what causes fibromyalgia’s other symptoms, like headaches, fatigue, and brain fog.

What causes this malfunctioning to occur, and what specifically causes fibromyalgia to develop, is still unknown.  

Fibromyalgia Risk Factors

Although the specific cause of fibromyalgia is unknown, a few factors are generally believed to put you more at risk of developing the condition. These factors include: 

  • Genetic predisposition: If someone in your close family has fibromyalgia, you may be more at risk of developing it. According to the Fibromyalgia Awareness Association, in many cases, multiple members of the same family are affected by fibromyalgia, and specific genes may be linked to the condition.
  • Sex: If you are a woman, you may be more at risk. Approximately 90% of all people with fibromyalgia are women. According to the CDC, women are twice as likely than men to develop the condition. 
  • Age: According to the CDC, you are more likely to develop fibromyalgia as you get older. However, children can also develop fibromyalgia.
  • Disease: Having lupus or rheumatoid arthritis is thought to increase your risk of developing fibromyalgia. Additionally, other illnesses such as a viral infection may cause the condition to flare up in those genetically predisposed.
  • Stressful triggers: High stress at home or work, or trauma such as a car accident or an assault can also trigger a fibromyalgia flare-up in those predisposed to the condition.
Fibromyalgia Risk Factors: Genetic predisposition, Gender, Age, Disease, Stressful Triggers

How do You Diagnose Fibromyalgia?

Before we get into how fibromyalgia is diagnosed, it should be acknowledged that many people with the condition are first misdiagnosed with other conditions. This is because many fibromyalgia symptoms mimic or appear alongside those of other conditions, so some symptoms may initially be seen as their own issues rather than as clinical manifestations of one disorder.

Fibromyalgia is often misdiagnosed as: 

  • Irritable bowel syndrom
  • Headache
  • Muscle spasm
  • Subclinical hypothyroidism
  • Restless leg syndrome
  • Vertigo or dizziness
  • Anxiety
  • Depression

That said, a fibromyalgia diagnosis does not entirely rule out the possibility of additional conditions occurring. 


Because there is no lab test or scan that can detect fibromyalgia, your doctor will mainly be considering your symptoms. The main sign required for a fibromyalgia diagnosis is widespread pain for at least three months. “Widespread pain” is considered to be pain in at least four of these five regions:

  • Left upper region, including shoulder, arm, or jaw
  • Right upper region, including shoulder arm, or jaw
  • Left lower region, including hip, buttock, or leg
  • Right lower region, including hip, buttock, or leg
  • Axial region, including neck, back, chest, or abdomen

If your symptoms overlap with other conditions, your doctor may also want to conduct blood tests to rule those conditions out. However, just like a fibromyalgia diagnosis does not rule out additional conditions, additional conditions do not entirely rule out the possibility of fibromyalgia.

What is fibromyalgia widespread pain? , further details are provided below.
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Fibromyalgia Treatment

Once you are diagnosed with fibromyalgia, you and your doctor will develop a treatment plan that works best for you. It’s important to note that treatment for fibromyalgia is not a cure, but instead focused on minimizing symptoms. Typically, most treatment plans will consist of medication and therapy. The best treatment for fibromyalgia will vary depending on the person and intensity of their condition.

HOW FIBROMYALGIA IS TREATED Medication, Therapy ? Natural remedies for fibromyalgia CBD Oil
Various pills spilling out of a pill bottls


If living with fibromyalgia without medications is not an option, there is a range of medications your doctor may suggest as a fibromyalgia pain solution. These include:

  • Pain relievers: Your doctor may recommend over-the-counter pain relievers, such as ibuprofen (Advil), acetaminophen (Tylenol), and naproxen sodium (Aleve). Opioid medication, on the other hand, is not recommended because it typically only worsens the pain over time. 
  • Antidepressants: Antidepressants like duloxetine (Cymbalta) and milnacipran (Savella) can reduce fibromyalgia fatigue and pain. Additionally, your doctor might prescribe antidepressants to treat depression and anxiety associated with the condition.
  • Muscle relaxers: To help you sleep, your doctor may prescribe you with amitriptyline or a muscle relaxer like cyclobenzaprine. 
  • Anti-seizure drugs: Some anti-seizure medications can be used to treat fibromyalgia pain. These include gabapentin (Neurontin) and pregabalin (Lyrica). 
A doctor holding a mans back


Your doctor may also refer you to other professionals for various types of therapy for your fibromyalgia. These include: 

  • Psychological therapy: Psychological therapy or counseling is an essential aspect of fibromyalgia treatment. Fibromyalgia pain can cause stress and have other adverse effects on your mental health. Still, psychological factors can also increase your symptoms. A counselor or therapist can teach you coping skills and new behaviors that can help manage symptoms. 
  • Physical therapy: A physical therapist can teach you safe exercises to help relieve pain, strengthen your muscles, and improve flexibility and stamina. They may also be able to help you find ways to improve your posture and relieve stress off of your regions of pain. 
  • Occupational therapy: An occupational therapist can help you adjust how you work and conduct other tasks to reduce stress on your body. 
  • Group therapy: Group therapy can be affordable to reduce stress while also meeting others with the same condition. Online communities like the NFMCPA Online Support Community, Living with Fibro, and the Fibromyalgia Subreddit can be helpful
A close up of a woman meditating

Natural Remedies for Fibromyalgia

You might also consider natural remedies to treat your pain, such as CBD, acupuncture, massage therapy, meditation, yoga, or tai chi. 


While research is limited in terms of CBD due to its progressing legal status, the research conducted thus far has shown a promising future of CBD and fibromyalgia. Researchers believe cannabis helps in the way it interrupts nerve signals to the brain. They think it eases pain by possibly attaching to nerve receptors in the body called CB2 receptors. Another hypothesis is that CBD sparks the body to produce cannabinoids (endocannabinoids) which results in less pain and inflammation.

A 2020 study of cannabis on fibromyalgia concluded that this treatment method has a promising future for fibromyalgia pain relief.

A 2016 study concluded with the hypothesis that chronic pain conditions such as fibromyalgia and migraines are caused by a deficiency of endocannabinoids, which CBD helps replenish.

While the potential of CBD oil for fibromyalgia is strong, much more research and studies are required to fully understand its effects.


Acupuncture involves sticking fin needles in specific pressure points to relieve pain. While the results are mixed, acupuncture for fibromyalgia has been studied and shown to have some benefits. A meta-analysis of 12 random controlled trials found it to be effective in reducing pain and improving quality of life. The long-term follow up found it to still be effective as well.

Another meta-analysis found moderate levels of evidence that acupuncture improves pain and stiffness, improves sleep, and enhances the overall quality life of fibromyalgia patients. While the study concluded that larger research is required, it did state acupuncture to be safe.

More research is required on  acupuncture and fibromyalgia, but it shows potential benefits of reduced pain, better sleep, increased relaxation, potential immune system stimulation, and better overall health.

Massage Therapy

Massage therapy is nothing new, it involves the kneading and rubbing of muscles, joints, tendons, and ligaments to reduce pain. Fibromyalgia massages may range from deep pressure to light strokes depending on the person and their condition. A systematic review of nine studies with 404 patients found massage therapy for fibromyalgia to reduce pain, anxiety, and depression when used for ≥5 weeks.


Because fibromyalgia impacts both physical and mental wellbeing, it's thought that mindfulness meditation can serve as a complimentary treatment to reduce pain and improve overall mental health. Both a study and review found meditation for fibromyalgia relief to not necessarily reduce pain, but give patients the ability to better cope and manage fibro related stress. Implementing mindfulness-based stress reduction into your daily routine can reduce stress levels, improve sleep, and enhance quality of life.


Yoga presents itself as not only a good way to reduce pain and improve flexibility & strength, but a way of reducing stress, enhancing mindfulness, and relieving mental fatigue. Because of its benefits, yoga for fibromyalgia relief is commonly practiced. There are a wide collection of studies and findings which show yoga to be a solid complimentary treatment method.

Fibromyalgia Pain Relief Products

Fibromyalgia Pain Relief Products

Fibromyalgia is a chronic condition that affects that way your brain processes pain signals resulting in amplified, chronic pain. Fibromyalgia affects the quality of life with side effects including pain and fatigue, sleep problems, and anxiety or depression. Carex offers a wide array of fibromyalgia natural treatment to assist in mobility, pain management, physical therapy, and improved sleep. Use our fibromyalgia pain management products with or without pain medications to relieve widespread pain and stiffness associated with the condition.

Living with Fibromyalgia

What to do for Fibromyalgia Pain?

In addition to treatments from medical professionals, there are a few things you can do in your daily life to manage your symptoms. Tips for fibromyalgia relief include regular exercise, eating a healthy diet, improving your posture, and getting a good night’s sleep. Daily practice is vital to reduce fibromyalgia pain and prevent flareups.

Eating tips for Fibromyalgia , further details are provided below.
A senior woman holding purple weights

Regular Exercise

Although fatigue and pain can make you want to avoid exercise at all costs, exercising regularly can be beneficial (even when you’re having a flare-up) and possibly be one of the best remedies for fibromyalgia. Not only can it reduce pain, but it can relieve stress, give you an energy boost, and make you feel more confident. On top of that, if you avoid exercise, you may lose functional capacity over time, which can end up causing more pain in the long run.

Before starting an exercise routine, talk to your doctor about what kind of physical activity would be right for you. Generally, though, it’s recommended to have at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise (such as walking or swimming) 3-5 days a week, muscle strengthening and balance exercises (such as yoga or Pilates) at least two days a week, and flexibility exercises (such as stretching) every day. Always avoid high-intensity exercises, and be sure to stay hydrated while you work out.

To work exercise into your daily routine, try to create a regimen that is both accessible and something you enjoy. For example, sign up for a supervised activity at a recreation center near you, or create a fun exercise routine you can do at home.

It’s never too late to start exercising, but be sure to start slow, and don’t let tiredness, pain, or soreness after a workout stop you. That’s normal, even for people without fibromyalgia! That said, try to keep a healthy balance and rest when you need to. 

A woman holding a bag of groceries

Healthy Diet

A nutritious, balanced diet is key to managing fibromyalgia. It keeps you at a healthy weight to minimize strain on the muscles and tendons. Eating the right foods and avoiding others can also help reduce symptoms of the condition.

The key to a healthy diet is to eat nutritionally balanced meals. The easiest way to do this is to consider the Healthy Eating Pyramid by Harvard University. The Pyramid notes a few essential things to remember: 

  • The majority of your daily intake should be whole grains (like whole-wheat bread and whole-grain pasta), healthy oils (like olive oil), and fruits and vegetables.
  • A moderate daily serving of healthy proteins like chicken, fish, nuts, beans, or tofu.  
  • A moderate daily serving of dairy products, such as milk, yogurt, and cheese
  • Only consume red or processed meat, refined grains (like white bread and rice), and sweetened products on an occasional, moderate basis.
  • Drink mainly water each day.

Foods to Avoid to Reduce Symptoms

There are also some foods you will want to avoid or eat sparingly to help keep your symptoms at bay. These include:

  • For fatigue: Sugary foods, as they will only give you a short boost before causing you to crash
  • For constipation: Sugar and refined grains like white rice and bread
  • For dry mouth: Dry, hard to swallow foods like those that are toasted or fried
  • For headaches and migraines: Processed meats and foods with additives. Some other foods that may be causing headaches include onions, oranges, chocolate, cheese, wine, beer, coffee, and tea
  • For menstrual pain: Red meat, butter, margarine, and pastries 
  • For disturbed sleep: Coffee, tea, energy drinks, chocolate, alcohol, and spicy foods

In general, you should be avoiding food additives and food chemicals such as MSG and aspartame, as well as processed and sugary foods. You may also consider reducing your gluten intake, as one study showed that non-celiac gluten sensitivity could be an underlying cause of fibromyalgia.

A woman sitting straight up


Having poor posture can overload your locomotor system and harm your overall well being. To reduce pain and other fibromyalgia symptoms, do your best to improve your posture throughout the day with the following tips:

  • Standing: Avoid standing for long periods and change positions often. When doing standing activities, such as ironing, brushing your teeth, or putting makeup on, avoid leaning forward. Instead, rest one foot on a box or stool and alternate feet every so often. 
  • Sitting: Avoid slouching forward, and be sure to sit in a seat with a backrest for support. Keep your back straight and both of your feet touching the floor. A support cushion for your lower back can also help improve sitting posture. 
  • Sleeping: Avoid sleeping on your stomach, as it can strain your lower spine. The fetal position (on your side with your hips and knees slightly bent) or your back with a pillow supporting your knees is the best position to sleep in. 
  • Daily activities: When picking things up or cleaning, squat, or kneel to avoid bending forward. Be sure always to keep your back straight. Also, avoid reaching above your head, as this can overload your spine. Instead, use a stool or step ladder to grab or clean things above you. 
A woman sleeping on her side

Good Night's Sleep

Fibromyalgia pain can cause an awful cycle when it comes to sleep. Pain makes it hard to sleep, but disturbed sleep can make the pain worse. Other factors like stress or depression may be keeping you up too.

To get a better night’s sleep, try to follow a bedtime routine, and keep a regular sleep schedule. Don’t exercise, eat, or drink caffeine or alcohol three hours before bedtime. It can also help to stay off electronic devices before bed and relax by meditating or having a hot bath instead. If this doesn’t help, talk to your doctor about what’s disturbing your sleep; they may recommend sleep medication. 

A person with a blue gel pack on her back

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Frequently Asked Questions

Is Fibromyalgia Real?

Yes, fibromyalgia is real, as are the symptoms experienced by those with fibromyalgia. It is not made up or “all in their head” as some may believe. Although it is not entirely medically understood yet, the experiences of those suffering from it should not be discounted.  

Can You Get Disability for Fibromyalgia?

Yes, it is possible to claim disability for fibromyalgia successfully. However, it can be difficult. To be approved for disability by the Social Security Administration, you are required to have:

  • Severe symptoms that have been present for at least three months
  • At least 11 of the 18 “regions of pain” above and below the waist and on both sides of the body, or at least six ongoing symptoms of fibromyalgia 
  • Documented evidence that rules out other conditions, such as relevant medical records, laboratory testing, or a written opinion by your doctor
  • Statements from you and friends, family, or coworkers about any limits fibromyalgia has on your daily activities
  • Whether fibromyalgia prevents you from working

This guide by Healthline goes into more detail about how to apply for disability.

Can Fibromyalgia be Cured?

Unfortunately, there is no cure for fibromyalgia; all fibromyalgia treatment focuses on managing symptoms and reducing pain. Though they can’t cure the condition entirely, treatments such as medication, therapy, and lifestyle changes can make fibromyalgia easier to live with.

Can You Die from Fibromyalgia?

Fibromyalgia is not a degenerative disease, meaning it cannot progressively worsen to the point that it becomes deadly. However, fibromyalgia's chronic symptoms can lower one’s quality of life and cause anxiety and depression to develop, putting those with fibromyalgia at a higher risk of suicide than the general population.

It is crucial to seek psychological treatment in addition to physical treatment when you are diagnosed with fibromyalgia. If you are having suicidal thoughts, tell your doctor or psychologist as soon as you can.   

Will fibromyalgia put me in a wheelchair?

While fibromyalgia will not paralyze you, if the pain intensifies enough it may require you to use one when walking for extended periods. To limit the pain and stay active, try to use natural pain relief methods such as hot/cold therapy, TENS therapy, and physical therapy. It may also help to start with subtle mobility aids such as walking canes to see if they effectively relieve any pain experienced. 

What Experts Say About Fibromyalgia

We reached out to various health professionals including nutritionists, chiropractors, and physicians to get their insights, treatment methods, and best advice for handling Fibromyalgia.

"My advice would be people get a food sensitivity test to see which foods are driving inflammation development in their body."

Headshot for Lisa Richards

Lisa Richards



"A diet low in refined carbohydrates, gluten, red meat and other inflammatory ingredients is ideal to mitigate the symptoms of an inflammatory disease"

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David D Clarke MD



"A significant contributing factor to symptoms in my patients was stress, trauma and repressed emotions linked to adverse childhood experiences."

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Kirana Kefalos, MD, LLC

Internal Medicine from a Holistic Perspective (Board certified)


"Get your energies moving in the right direction. Kidney 27 is a very important junction point on the acupuncture meridian system. When it is out of balance, the energy in your meridians can actually be running backwards."

Headshot for Dr. Russell Jaffe MD, PDF, CCN

Dr. Russell Jaffe MD, PhD, CCN



"I would recommend the ELISA/ACT LRA test."

Headshot for Dr. Ricardo Castrellon

Dr. Ricardo Castrellon

Plastic Surgeon


"Soak in a warm bath to relax tense muscles and reduce pain as moist heat increases endorphins which blocks pain signals."

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Dr. Jesica Mills, PharmD, MBA, RPh, ND

Pharmacist, Naturopath, Owner of Owensboro Family Pharmacy and Wellness


"We recommend specific vitamins (B vitamins mostly) with amino acids"

Headshot for Dr. Rubina Tahir, DC

Dr. Rubina Tahir, DC



"I teach patients self massage in the form of ischemic compression - direct finger or thumb pressure on painful points for 30 seconds. This will activate the pressure point and upon release will increase blood flow"

Head shot for Dr. Kerry Boyle

Dr. Kerry Boyle



"Home care help for fibromyalgia includes using heat therapies like hot showers, baths, heating pads and hot water bottles. This will also increase circulation and cause a reduction in pain. Adding Epsom salts to soaks reduces inflammation as well."

Additional Pain Relief Resources

A graphic of a man in lower back pain. Text, “The ultimate guide to pain management”

The Ultimate Guide to Pain Management

A man putting a red light therapy item over his knee. Text, “The ultimate guide to red light therapy for pain”

The Ultimate Guide to Red Light Therapy for Pain

A graphic of a man with electrodes on his shoulder. Text, “the ultimate guide to TENS units”

The Ultimate Guide to TENS Units

A graphic of a woman with a hot wrap on her neck and a cold pack on her knee. Text how to alternate hot and cold therapy

How to Alternate Hot and Cold Therapy


About the Author

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Stephanie Schwarten is a freelance writer and editor with a Bachelors degree in Professional Writing. She specializes in content marketing as well as both developmental and copy editing. 

About Carex Health Brands

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Carex is your one-stop shop for home medical equipment and for products that assist caregivers with providing the best possible support and care for their loved ones. Carex Health Brands has been the branded leader in in-home, self-care medical products for over 35 years. Our goal is to improve the lives of our customers by bring them quality products that bring dignity back to their lives. With our three nationally distributed brands, Carex Health Brands serves national, regional and independent food, drug and mass retailers along with wholesalers, distributors and medical dealers.

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